The 1st Imam
His Holiness The Commander of The Faithful Ali (AS)
Amir al-Mu'minin (The Commander of the Faithful), the Ya’sub u-Din (The grandeur of the religion) and the Qaid-ul-qarr-al-Mohajjalin (the leader of steadfast-visages), Waliullah (Guardian) and Asadullah (The Lion of God), and the brother of the Prophet, and the husband of his daughter and his Successor, Ali ibn Abi Talib, his glorified name was Ali; his father was Abu Talib ibn Hashim ibn Abd-e–Manaf whose father’s honourable name was Imran, and after the birth of his first child “Talib”, he took the patronym of Abu Talib. His Holiness, the Commander of the Faithful, has many titles, and the most celebrated of them is Abu-al-Hassan and Abu-Torab. His auspicious titles are also numerous, including Asadullah and Asad-u-Rasool and Saifullah and Morteza and the Commander of the Faithful and Ya’sub u-Din. His exalted mother is Fatemah bint Asad bin Hashim bin Abd-e-Manaf. His Holiness is the fourth child of Abu Talib and younger than his other brothers Talib, Aqeel and Hamzah. These honourable are the first Hashimite that from two sides (father and mother) are of Hashimite descents.
His auspicious birth, according to the authentic news, was on the 13th Rajab, thirty years after the "ām ul-fīl" (The Year of the Elephant) and 24 years before Hijrat, inside the Kaabah, when his mother went for pilgrimage to the House of Kaabah on that day. When she arrived in front of the Kaabah, the trace of her pregnancy appeared. At that moment, the wall of the house split open, and Fatemah entered the house, and the wall of the house joined together. After the birth of His Holiness, Fatemah came out of the House in a state having Ali swaddled and in her arms, said: a voice in the house induced me to name him: Ali. Then she took the dear baby home to his father Abu Talib and the father by seeing the beloved child; his sight was illuminated. Then the Holy Prophet (SAW) came to the house of Abu Talib, picked up Ali and embraced him to his blessed chest, kissed him, and spoke about his merits and grandeur and greatness.
His Holiness till the year 16 before Hijrat (570–571 AD) grew up with the rest of his brothers under the protection and patronage of his honourable father, till famine and scarcity broke out in Mecca that year, and the people struggled for their livelihood with difficulty and hardships. His Holiness the Messenger of God (SAW) said to Abbas bin Abd-ul-Muttalib who was financially well off and had a comfortable life, the hardship of livelihood had pressured the people strenuously, our uncle Abu Talib is an aged man with less financial abilities, it would be better that each one of us take his sons under our care and be a supporter of his life till from livelihood our noble uncle's difficulty decreases. Abbas agreed, and they went together to His Excellency Abu Talib. After obtaining permission, Abbas took Jafar, and the Holy Prophet (SAW) took Ali, who was then eight years old and took him to his house and under his shelter and kindness with full affection attended to him and educated him. Ali, also with sincerity and heartfelt affection, used to be at the service to his teacher till the Prophet's mission arrived, and His Holiness was appointed to prophethood, but yet he was not missioned to invite the people. Ali was ten years old at that time, and he participated in the foremost prayer that Khadijah and the Messenger (SAW) recited.
However, in the 3rd year of his prophetic mission, the command: (O! Mohammad) "And admonish thy nearest kinsmen" descended, and the Messenger of God (SAW) commanded Ali to prepare food and invite the relatives of His Holiness. Ali (AS), according to the command, prepared meals and gathered the relatives of His Holiness in his house for three consecutive days. His Holiness invited them to Islam every day, but none accepted his invitation. On the 3rd day, he said that the first person among you who would accept my invitation and bring faith would be my successor and have authority over others. Ali (AS) stood up in the crowd and said: I accept your invitation wholeheartedly. His Holiness said O Ali sit down and repeated his statement three times. All three times, only Ali (AS) stood up and declared to accept his invitation, but His Holiness would ask him to keep silent. For the 3rd time, His Holiness took Ali's hand and asked him to say the two testimonies and accepted his Bayat (allegiance) to Islam. At that time, Ali was 12 years old. The other relatives of the Prophet all left there with a mocking smile.
Briefly, Ali (AS), likewise with affection and complete faith, was at the services of the Prophet (SAW). And in all the hardships and calamities did not separate from His Holiness. And at all the times was always ready to protect and safeguard the Prophet (SAW). And never gave up due to the tolerance of hardships from the infidels. The period of staying in Mecca and the years of being sanctioned in the valley of “Sheb of Abu Talib” and everywhere and at all times attended and was at his service and was heedful to preserve and guarding the noble being of the Prophet until the time of Hijrat (migrating) to Medina reached. On the night of Hijrat (migrating) of His Holiness, the Messenger of God entrusted Ali to hold the people's deposits to be returned over to their owners and gave him the necessary orders to bring his family to Medina. At that time, the Prophet (SAW) said: to mislead the infidels and polytheists who intend to kill me tonight; you might sleep in my bed. Ali asked: By sleeping in your bed, will your life be safeguarded? His Holiness said: Yes. Ali said: Most willingly, "the head has not so much value to be sacrificed in the footsteps of the Friend". That night (Laylat ul-Mabit), he slept wearing the clothes of His Holiness and encountered the attack of the infidels at dawn. And three days after, according to the orders of the Prophet with Fatemah Ali's mother and Fatemah Zahra, the daughter of the Prophet, and Fatemah bint Abd-ul-Muttalib moved towards Medina and before the journey of the Prophet to Medina joined His Holiness in Qoba.
In the 2nd year after Hijrat, Ali (AS) proposed to His Holiness the Prophet to marry Batool Azra Fatemah Zahra and married her, and everywhere he was a companion to His Holiness the Prophet, and attentive to be at his service and participated in all the battles except the battle of Tabuk when the Prophet asked him to stay in Medina to be as his caliphate, and won in all wars by his courage and self-sacrifice in the way of Islam, that in some battles divine authorities in the Kingdom of Heaven and His Holiness the Messenger of God on earth openly praised his courage and sincerity, as mentioned in the battle of Uhud which took place in the 3rd year after Hijrat and most Muhajirun (emigrants) and Ansars (helpers) and eminent companions preferred to flee the battleground instead of being steadfast, except a few persons, remained with the Mahmoud (praiseworthy) Prophet. Ali (AS) stood fast that three swords were broken in his hands and the sword of Dhul-Faqar reached and a voice from the Heaven proclaimed "There is no youth like Ali (AS) and there is no sword like Dhul-Faqar".
And in the battle of Khandaq in the fifth year after the Hijrat (The migration of the Prophet to Medina), when his Holiness went to confront with Amr bin Abdowud, to whom all the companions had surrendered, His Holiness the Messenger of God (SAW), in the middle of a gathering, said that "the entire faith manifested against the entire polytheism". About the same confrontation again, he said: Ali's blow (to Amr) on the day of Khandaq is more valuable than the worship of jinns and humans. And in the sixth year after the Hijrat in the battle of Khyber, others who were commissioned to conquer Qamus fort returned defeated and crushed from the Qamus fort and made the flag of Islam weak. His Holiness the Prophet (SAW) said: tomorrow I will give the flag to a warrior and undefeatable man who loves God and his Prophet, and God and his Prophet also love him, and the conquest and seizure will be made by his hands. The next day he gave the flag to Ali and commissioned him to conquer the aforesaid fort, and Ali (AS) went, and with a lion-like strength, tore the door of the fortress from its place and conquered the fortress.
In the 9th year after Hijrat, when the Prophet was commissioned to announce the surah of Bara'at to the people of Mecca, he gave the surah to Abi Bakr and sent him to Mecca. A not long time had passed that the divine command reached that the surah should be taken by yourself, or someone from you should take it to Mecca and announce it to the people. His Holiness the Messenger of God (SAW) called Ali (AS) and commanded him to reach Abi Bakr and take the surah from him and take it to Mecca and recite it to the people from the top of the Jamarah of Aqaba.
In the 10th year, he was sent to the war of Yemen as the commander of 300 of the companions, and also in that year, the Holy Prophet (SAW) during the return from Hajjat-ul–Veda (farewell pilgrimage) in Ghadir Khumm with the command: "O! messenger proclaim the message which has been sent to thee from thy Lord" raised Ali's (AS) hand with his blessed hands among 70 thousand people who were in his entourage and appointed him as his successor and divine caliphate and master of the Muslims and ordered to set up a tent for the people to do Bayat (to pledge allegiance) with Ali and his guardianship incumbent over all Muslims.
In the 11th year after the Hijrat, when the Prophet of God gracefully walked to the Garden of Rezvan (Heaven), when he (Ali) was engaged in washing and shrouding and burying the sacred body of His Holiness, the others had gathered in Saqifah Bani Sa'idah agitated and were in the tumult for the caliphate and from the people took Bayat (allegiance) for the caliphate for themselves. His Holiness after his peaceful claim and protesting to get his right did not get the result, to avoid disagreement and discord and dispersion among the Muslims that might cause interruption of the Islamic movement and obedience of the personal wills of the Prophet of God (SAW) necessarily deemed to stay at home and took the path of peace, until he was forcibly taken to the mosque. It was propagated that he has done Bayat (pledged allegiance) (with the Rashidun caliphs). Again His Holiness to safeguard the integrity of Islam would consent and never refrain from giving guidance and consultations to them regarding the progress of Islam. And according to the authentic narration, 75 days after the demise of His Holiness Prophet of God (SAW), Fatimah Zahra (SA) also passed away, that increased great sorrow and immense pain on the grief of His Holiness Ali (AS).
When the year 13th Hijrat arrived, Abu Bakr, after two years and three months of the caliphate passed away, and though Abu Bakr had said it many times on the pulpit that "leave me, because I am not the best of you, while Ali is among you" before his death, he (Abu Bakr) appointed Omar as his successor and entrusted the caliphate to him and again the people did not see the truth and reality and without considering the truth did Bayat (pledged allegiance) with Omar. His Holiness Commander of the Faithful did not allow the conflicts among the Muslims and the interruption of the progress of Islam, showed his patience and forbearance and did not take a step towards realizing his right and as before co-operated with Omar and guided him (the 2nd Caliph) in raising the flag of Islam. Omar also repeatedly and in different cases said: "If Ali were not among us, Omar would have been perished (many times)", and used to say: "O! Ali, after you, there is no survival for us". The case His Holiness informing Omar in the masjid of Medina about the difficulties of the Muslims in the battle of Nahavand that Ali (AS) ordered him (Omar) to say aloud: "All troops go to the mountain", and Ali (AS) said you shout and I will take your sound and will reach your voice to the Muslims troops in Nahavand with the help of the Kingdom of Heaven; all and all were proofs for the co-operation and giving consultation of His Holiness to them to preserve the integrity of Islam and the development of Islamic frontiers.
In brief, Omar also in Dhi Hajjah of the year 23 Hijri by the blow of a dagger of Abu Lolo a Persian slave was wounded and for three days was on his death bed and in the same condition Omar was concerned about the caliphate after him and would think and would consider the circumstances in his mind to find a way that while concealing his main purpose, would eventually lead to his desire and views and finally limited the caliphate among six persons: His Holiness Commander of the Faithful Ali and Uthman bin Affan and Talha bin Obaidullah and Zubayr bin al-Awan and Abdu-Rahman bin Awf and Saad bin Abi Waqas, and appointed Abu Talha Ansari with 50 courageous Ansars who after his death should gather these six persons in a place and monitor them until they unanimously appoint one person from themselves or from Muslims outside to take over as the caliph, and if full agreement was not agreed upon and if their opinions were not equal to elect a person with majority votes as caliph and behead the minority of the opposition, and if different opinions were similar and the chosen of that group among whom Abdu-Rahman ibn Awf is in it, their selection should be recognized as the caliph and to do Bayar (pledge allegiance) to him. And his son Abdullah bin Omar without giving him the right to vote in the election must be an observer of the performance of the case. Of course, any wise person who is far from prejudice who knows the closeness of Abdu-Rahman with Uthman, who was the son of Uthman's cousin and his son-in-law should know, and from the inward secret enmity of Sad Waqas with Ali, will surely understand the purpose of preparation of this premise that was to result in a deviation of the Caliphate from Ali (AS).
In short, for the above reasons, Uthman, with the consent of Abdu-Rahman ibn Awf and Sad ibn Abi Waqas was elected as the caliphate, and Ali (AS) showed patience and forbearance once again and watched the events, but from now on, his mental pain increased day by day and became more intense. Because Uthman, unlike his two predecessors, was not careful to maintain the Islamic commands and the prophetic traditions, nor he was capable of preventing corruption and sedition. He was an Emir who was a captive in the grip of his own family (Bani Umayyads). From this point of view, indecent and the irrational and the disproportionate and lowly people who mainly were Umayyadis were appointed in the government, cities, and towns and freely kindled the fire of oppression, tyranny, and selfishness everywhere and destroyed the reputation of Islam and made the Muslim furious from his profiteering so much, as that the poor and desperate Muslims first complained to him and his negligence to their voice and grievances of the people led to their dissatisfaction and disgust for him. The dissatisfaction resulted in the movement against him. Finally, on the 18th Dhi hajjah in the year 35 Hijri (20, June 656 AD), Muslims attached and besieged his house, and despite His Holiness Ali (AS) sent his sons Hassan and Hussein (AS) to protect his life, the invaders stormed his home and killed him.
After the assassination of Uthman, the people crowded the house of the Commander of the Faithful and invited him to accept the caliphate. His Holiness first refused to accept the caliphate and after the insistence from the people said: I will be willing to accept your request if my tenure of office is accompanied together with the consent and acceptance of all the companions and the elites of Muhajirun (emigrants) and Ansars (helpers). I must be sure of obedience and acceptance of the public. Finally, due to the insistence and public interest and to prevent confusion and disorder of the Muslims, His Holiness accepted the caliphate; and on the 3rd or 4th day after the assassination of Uthman, the people of Medina generally from big to small and old and young, black and white did Bayat (swore allegiance) with His Holiness. From this time, the discomfort of His Holiness took a different form, and his grievousness became more severe than before because the Muslim community was afflicted with moral corruption, and except for a few from the selected and companions, the rest of the followers had forgotten the lessons of Islamic teachings. The spirit of piety, honesty, brotherhood, virtue and self-continence from the material allurements in them had died; they trampled Islamic morals under their feet and completely followed the whims and desires and were enticed by greed and possession of this world.
As mentioned, not much time had passed from the Bayat (allegiance) with His Holiness that two of the eminent companions who were from the "Asharah Mobasharah" group (The ten companions of His Holiness the Prophet of God (SAW)), namely Talha bin Ubaidullah and Zubayr ibn al-Awwam, due to the reason that His Holiness Commander of the Faithful could not tolerate in accepting their worldly demands, they broke off their Bayat (allegiance) and joined Ummul-Mu'minin Ayesha who intended to oppose His Holiness, Amir. Ummul-Mu'minin Ayesha, who herself was a founder of the movement and revolted against Uthman and by saying: "kill Uthman" everywhere accelerated the murder of Uthman, and when she saw that in contrary to her thought and intent, the caliphate was set on His Holiness the Commander of the Faithful, she established herself as the owner of the blood of Uthman, and in the name of vengeance of Uthman engaged in plotting against His Holiness Amir, and with Talha and Zubyr equipped an army and started the famous battle of Jamal. They were the first who founded the turmoil and discord among the Muslims in the time of Ali (AS), and 18,000 to 20,000 Muslims were killed with the swords of the Muslims themselves, and, in the end, they laid down their own lives for this transgression as well.
In short, after the three days of battle, the battle of Jamal came to an end on the 20th of Jamadi al-Awal, near to Basra, in the year 36 Hijri (17, November 656 AD) with the victory of His Holiness Amir and defeat of the instigators of war and constant remorse of Ayesha. And His Holiness Amir (AS), after entering Basra, dispatched Ayesha with a group of women dressed in men's clothes towards Medina. He (AS) himself stayed in Basra for less than two months to bring the order of the restless affairs to some discipline. And due to successive news reached about Muaviyah's uprising and his intention of revolt, he went towards Kufa, which was located almost in the middle of the Islamic lands and the centre of the Islamic army and in respect to the food supply and provisions there, in about the middle of Rajab, and during the end of Rajab entered Kufa and stayed in Kufa for four months and started managing affairs and taking Bayat (allegiance) from surrounding areas and region of Kufa and engaged in equipping the troops and mobilizing the army to suppress Muaviyah, and at the same time that he was attempting to mobilize the forces he proceeded to communicate and sending letters based on guidance and counsel to Muaviyah, saying that perhaps he would return to the right way and refrain from inciting sedition. Until his (Muaviyah's) movements with a well-equipped army towards Iraq reached His blessed ears, His Holiness decided to move towards him. At the end of Dhul-Qadah of 36, Hijri dispatched vanguards from his army towards Damascus and himself, also after one day with 90 thousand cavaliers at the end of the month of Dhu al Hijjah entered Saffain, that Muaviyah had entered there and had camped before. His Holiness Amir again spent a few days corresponding and sending the messages and promises and advises and counsel and delayed to start the war as he did not like to begin the attack and start the battle.
Finally, since the correspondence and negotiations did not yield results and the habitants of Sham (Damascus) started the war from the beginning, His Holiness ordered to defend. Till the month of Muharram of the year 37, Hijri reached, and because it was a holy month, the war was stopped, and the two armies with each other opened the door for socializing and association and mixed. Muaviyah seized the opportunity and sent spies among the army of His Holiness to mislead the weak believers and those having less faith in the chiefs of the army of His Holiness as much as they could by giving them false promises and assurance. They created discord and split in the Iraqi army led by Ash'ath bin Qayth Kandi.
The month of Muharram passed, and the war resumed in the same way in the month of Safar as before and continued till the month of Safar of the following year, meaning the year 38 Hijri without any definite result. Then, the battle continued between the two sides with no result. Therefore, the patience and tolerance of both armies ended in a year of continuous and fruitless war, and they started a general war and final attack. This battle continued unabated for three days and night at all hours of the days and nights, in such a manner that on the last night, the fighters from the intensity of exhaustion weltered on the ground and wounded each other with their teeth and nails. That night was named "Laylat-ul Harir". It was at the end of the 3rd day that Muaviyah's army was defeated, and his defeat was definite, and Ashtar Nakhaie began the last attack with a brutal intensity and fervour, and he reached near the tent of Muaviyah, and he (Muaviyah) decided to flee, and the work was going to become over, that suddenly Amr al-As deceived and with a group of people from Damascus conspired and put the Quran or torn pages of the Quran on spearheads and called "O! Iraqis, how much (are you satisfied) from this murders and killings and agitation and uproar. We are ready that the Quran arbitrates among us and whatever the Quran rules we would obey; if you are Muslims, we invite you to the arbitration of the Quran, for some time, stop the war and fighting and let us consider the Quran and whatever the Glorious Quran says, let us implement". This cunning call weakened those hands and hearts of a part of Kufa's army in the war, and anxiety arose in their minds. With the deception of Ash'ath ibn Qayth who, according to the orders of His Holiness Amir, regarding as a result of suspicious towards him, he had removed from his commandership of the group under his command, and for this reason, he was distrustful of His Holiness Amir and had also been befriended and allured from Mauviyah's side and had withdrawn from the war with the conspiracy and plotting of Mauviyah's spies, a group from the army of Kufa with the leadership of Ash'ath gathered round His Holiness Ali (AS) and said: Now we have no reason against people of Sham (Damascus) and the war must immediately be stopped so that we can hear their demands and attend to their request. No matter how much His Holiness Amir said that the war has come to an end and our victory will be finalized, and their sayings are from the deception of Amr al-As and Mauviyah, wait for a few hours and stand firmly to embrace and witness the victory. Of course, they did not listen and finally threatened His Holiness that either you immediately evoke Ashtar from the battlefield to stop the war, or otherwise do not look for our help and assistance, on the contrary, if you insist on continuing the war, we will hand you dead or alive over to Mauviyah. His Holiness was compelled to stop Ashtar, who was about to finish the job from the battlefield, and summoned him to stop the war and therefore the commandership of the army got out of His Holiness' hands, and the people of Kufa acted on instincts of their unfaithfulness and turned their head back from obedience and placed His Holiness in the position of an observer on events. As he used to say: “A person whose companions do not obey him has no opinion and view”. His Holiness' army had the majority and settled the events according to their will and compelled His Holiness to accept the members of their operations. They wrote the contract of arbitrage and the representative of His Holiness for arbritaration contrary to his order which he had said Ibn Abbas or Ashtar Nakha'i, should be selected, and/or perhaps with the secret agreement of enemies they assigned Abu Musa regarding his foolishness and gave time to the arbitrators till the month of Ramazan to sit together and to do justice to both parties (Ali (AS) and Mauviyah) to issue their verdict in accordance to the written script of the Quran and Sunnah and on the principles of truth and verity, and the two armies each chose their own arbitrator (Abu Musa on behalf of the Iraqis, and Amr al-As on behalf of the people of Sham), and with 400 persons who were sent to Dumat al-Janan which was selected as the place of arbritation so that they could confer, and at the end of the month of Safar in the year 38 Hiri (August, 658 AD) Mauviyah with his army went to Sham (Damascus) and His Holiness Amir with the Iraqis went to Kufa to stay and wait for the verdict of the arbitrators.
But most of the troops of Kufa were not a people with strong faith and firm belief; it was this that in Siffin after signing the Arbitration Agreement, some of the same supporters left the war and changed their minds and voiced something new. They raised a strong protest against arbitration and called for "there is no command except God's" and called both His Holiness Amir and Muaviyah as sinners and even infidels and considered war with them as jihad in the way of God. Some of them were afraid and separated from the army in Kufa and went to Harura. Some of them went up to Kufa and from Kufa returned to their comrades, and they were those who named Haruriyah and then went to Nahrawan and were named the Kharijites of Nahrawan.
In short, there were 6 to 12 thousand persons who assembled and committed aggression, rape, and murder of the people. Abdullah bin Khabab was killed with his wife, and they opened his wife's belly and killed the fetus in her womb. At the same time, Muaviyah, also contrary to the agreement and treaty between the two troops, incessantly invaded the provinces and cities under the control of His Holiness Amir and committed murders and looting. Every day, the news of rape and attack of Muaviyah's agents was received from one of the cities, and His Holiness Amir would get engaged to prepare to send troops to repel them. Even Muaviyah would send people to Mecca and Medina on the pretext of Hajj so that they could commit murder and looting in those provinces.
In any case, the events of affairs were like this until the deadline for announcing the verdict of the arbitrators reached its end, and the foolishness and stupidity of Abu Musa created new intense turbulence in the affairs. The relative calm of Kufa was turned into anxiety and turmoil. In this way, Abu Musa was deceived by the trickery and unctuous tongue of Amr al-As, and his suggestion was to overthrow His Holiness Amir and Muaviyah both and to let the Muslims freely select a Caliphate as true and real, and when the vote was announced he was again deceived by Amr al-As polite pretension and before him, he (Abu Musa) went on the pulpit and voted unanimously against himself and his colleague Amr al-As, and announced to remove His Holiness Ali and Muaviyah from the Caliphate. Then Amr al-As went on the pulpit after him and denied his speech to remove Ali (AS) and Muaviyah and announced his vote to the dethronement of Ali (AS) and appointed Muaviyah. At the same time, the dispute and curses and swearing between Abu Musa and Amr al-As and therefore between the supporters of Muaviyah and His Holiness Ali (AS) started and was kindled. Muaviyah's supporters went to Sham (Damascus) to greet the Caliphate, and the supporters of Ali (AS) came to Kufa and informed His Holiness about the circumstances. His Holiness again started to equip the army and gathering forces to attack Damascus and renew the war with Muaviyah, and went from Kufa to Nakhilah to prepare the army, and departed for Damascus.
But on the other hand, the Kharijites who were in Harura and became aware of His Holiness leaving Kufa went towards Nahrawan from Harura after the departure of His Holiness and his army to Damascus; they would attack evacuated Kufa, which was defenceless. His Holiness became aware of their intentions and considered it necessary to repel those who were thorns in the way and cause of concern. Therefore, he moved to Nehrawan and, with a few speeches, advice and negotiations, guided eight thousand people to the right path and repent for their deeds. But in four thousand of them, there was no benefit in this advice and did not lessen from this stubbornness and hostility. Inevitably, His Holiness issued an order to attack, and from morning to afternoon except for nine persons, the rest of them were all killed, and those nine people fled and became the main core of the next Kharijites.
The Kharijites' war came to an end, and their unrest ended, and His Holiness decided to move towards Damascus and said to his troops: "God has favoured you with the victory over the enemy". Now for thanksgiving for this victory, get ready to move towards Damascus. But the mettle and schism of Ashath ibn Qayth Kandi did not allow it. He, with a group of like-minded people, said to His Holiness, our swords are blunt, and our quiver is empty from arrows; our weapons and ammunition are not enough; you should return us to Kufa so that we can improve and complete the weapons and war equipment and increase the number of troops, then go over the enemy well-equipped. His Holiness, whatever he emphasized and insisted on the necessity of their immediate move to Damascus, did not result. Therefore moved towards Kufa, and when he reached the ten miles to Kufa permanent camp, he disembarked and stopped in Nakhila, and gave permission to his army to go to town to clean and shave and repair their weapons, provided that they don't stop for a long time in the city and to return to camp as soon as possible. But the people of Kufa were naturally unfaithful and had carnal desires and lacked decision. Some of them had family ties with the slain of Nahrawan, took the way of rebellion, and whoever went to the city did not return. The camp almost got empty from the army, and a few sincere people remained with His Holiness. His Holiness waited quite some time for them to return, and just a few returned from the city. Therefore His Holiness also came to Kufa to encourage them and again prepare them for Jihad in the Damascus war. But alas, numerous and glorious sermons and continuous speeches of His Holiness would not affect them in their weak spirit and frozen hearts and agitation and did not initiate the tumult for Jihad in them. Whatever aggressions and manipulations of Muaviyah on the possessions of His Holiness would increase, it would add to the coldness and depressions of the troops of Kufa. Until finally, the insistence of His Holiness and his complaint about their carelessness and the duration of their procrastination and disgrace embarrassed them, and about eighty thousand people assembled in Nakhilah. His Holiness was about to move towards Damascus that case of His martyrdom suddenly occurred.
And it was in such a way that those Kharijites who had come in Nahravan came to Kufa, they returned to their former beliefs after a few days, and from time to time they would hurt His Holiness by their tongue lashing and secretly would gather in the corners and to progress their intents would consult with each other and in one of these meetings which took place in Kufa or Mecca, one of them said: Certainly, the source of sedition and discord and the cause of war and dispute among Muslims are three persons, Ali, Muaviyah, and Amr al-As. If these three persons be killed simultaneously, all the conflicts and bloodshed will surely end. We must eliminate all these three in one day and during a specific hour so that Muslims can be free and can choose a righteous caliph. This vote was accepted and agreed upon by all, and in the same meeting, three persons volunteered to implement this proposal. Barak bin Abdullah undertook to assassinate Muaviyah, and Daduyeh Mula bani Nazir or Amre bin Bakr Maysami took charge of the assassination of Amr al-As according to different narrations. Abdu-rahman ibn Muljam Muradi took the responsibility of assassinating Ali (AS). And to make their action to be fully enforceable and effective, they together decided the time of operating to be in the morning of the 19th day of the holy month of Ramadan, during the morning prayer in the mosque, and every one of the three persons set out to the destination and place of their mission with a firm determination. Abdu-Rahman, in addition to this commitment of the party, met the accursed Qatamah, who was a beautiful woman and was resentful towards His Holiness Amir in Nahrawan for killing her father and brother. He was fascinated by the charm of Qatameh, and to fulfil his carnal desires, he again promised to the accursed one to kill that holy Imam.
Unfortunately, Barak's behaviour led to Mauviyah being wounded and his wound being curable. The assassination intention of Daduya or Amr ibn Bakr towards Amr al-As was not successful due to his absence in the mosque, but Abdu-Rahman carried his evil intention and grieved the Islamic world forever.
On the night of the 19th of Ramadan in the fortieth year of the Hijrat (29 January, 661 AD), His Holiness opened his fast at the house of his daughter Umme Kulthum; after some rest, he left to engage in prayers and supplication in the threshold of the needless God, but he was distressed and disturbed, and he went to the courtyard several times until dawn and looked up at the sky as if he was examing the course of the stars and sometimes with compassion and amazement would hint as to what was going to happen. The dawn revealed, His Holiness went to the Masjid. He recited the call to prayer and then woke up the sleeping people. When he reached Ibn Muljam, who was sleeping with his sword under his cloak, he also woke him up and ironically pointed to the knowledge of his evil intention. The prayer lines were arranged. His Holiness stood at the front of Mehrab. The wretched Ibn Muljam (from the beginning to the end) stood behind the blessed Imam and in the 2nd prostration brought his poisoned sword down on the crown of the head of his blessed head by saying: "There is no command except God's", and incised His holy head and shook the earth and time. His Holiness drenched in blood fell at the Mehrab. The people rushed and caught the most hard-hearted one and put His Holiness body in a coarse carpet and took him to his home. His Holiness spent two days in bed saying goodbye to his companions and answering the questions of the seekers and preparing his Will and appointed his honourable son His Holiness Hassan Mojtaba (AS) as his successor and Divine Caliphate and on the 21st of Ramadan of the year 40 Hijri (31 January, 661 AD) joined his beloved.
His Holiness Imam Hassan (AS), according to the Will of his father, washed ceremonially and enshrouded his sacred body. At night, together with his noble brother, His Holiness Sayed-al-Shuhada (AS) carried the holy body and secretly buried His Holiness in a place now circumambulated by the angels of Heaven and the Kaaba of aspiration of the Shiite; the praise of God on him. His blessed age at the time of martyrdom was 64 years, the duration of his divine caliphate was 29 years and some months, and the period of his formal caliphate was four years and eight months, and a few days.
His Holiness’ miracles and generosities exceed the scope of counting, and his wise speeches and his knowledge-based sermons are beyond the scope of possibility to be counted that as an example, we may refer to Nahj-ul Balaghah and the instructions to Malik Ashtar and the Will of His Holiness to His Holiness Imam Hassan (AS). Virtues and excellent qualities are beyond the reach of human intellect and understanding to comprehend all of them or the possibility of defining them, except by those who are mystic to his luminosity is not achievable. He is a person who the Almighty God in the Holy Quran has praised each of his qualities and virtues separately. About the attribute of his self-sacrifice in the way of religion: “And of men is he who sells himself to seek the pleasure of Allah. And Allah is Compassionate to the Servants”, and regarding to his giving and forgiving: “Those who establish prayer and give zakat when they are bowing”, and about his excessive generosity and forgiveness: “And give food to the poor, the orphan, and the captive, despite their desire for it”, and about his infallibility: “Allah only wishes to remove all abomination from you, O! ye members of the Family”, were revealed. His courage is like the unseen divine voice from the indisputable position to: “There is no youth except Ali, and there is no sword except his sword (Zolfaqar)”. And the Holy Prophet (SAW) said to him: “You are my brother in this world and the other world”, and: “To me, you are the same as Haroon to Moses”, and: “Whom, I am his master, then this Ali is his master as well, Oh God! Please like those who like him”, and: “Tomorrow I will give the flag to a man who loves God and His Messenger, and God likes him, and the messenger likes him as well”, and: “The stroke of his sword in the Khandaq war is better than the obedience of Thaqalain”. And in the event of Mobahilah (imprecating), His Holiness Mohammad (SAW) took Ali under the title of himself”. In this way, how one can count (explain) one from the thousands of virtues of his characters.
“The wise would understand the depth of his soul,
If a small piece of a wooden twig could reach the depth of the sea”.
So, it is better that I also stop explaining and express my inability and just say:
“Explaining Ali’s attributes is not possible by talking.
Putting the sea in a bowl is not possible.”
His immaculate wives:
The marriage of His Holiness except with Fatimah Zahra and Batool Azra (AS) that after the passing away of that immaculate lady took them into wedlock. According to the authentic books, there were seven persons.
1- Imamah bint Abi al-As
2- Khulah bint Ayasi known as Hanafiyah
3- Fatimah named as Ummul-Banin bint Ḥuram bin Kalid
4- Asma bint Umais
5- Umme Habiba bint Rabiyah
6- Layli bint Masood
7- Umme Sa’id bint Faroo
His Holiness' honourable children:
His Holiness's children were written as 36 persons 18 Boys:
1- His Holiness Hassan Ibn Ali (AS) from the womb of Fatimah Zahra (PBUH)
2- His Holiness Hussein Ibn Ali (AS) from the womb of Fatimah Zahra (PBUH)
3- Mohammad Ibn Hanafiyah, named as Abi al-Qasim from the womb of Khulah Hanafiyah
4- Abbas al-Akbar named Abi al-Fadhl
5- Abdullah al-Akbar
6- Jafar al-Akbar
7- Uthman al-Akbar, these four people were from the womb of Umm ul-Banin
8- Muhammad al-Asghar, whose mother was Umme-walad
9- Abdullah al-Asghar
13- Uthman al-Owsat
14- Uthman al-Asqar
15- Abbas al-Asqar
16- Jafar al-Owsat
17- Omar al-Akbar
18- Jafar al-Asghar, who were from different mothers
And 18 daughters:
1- Zeinab Kobra (AS)
2- Zeinab Soghar named to Umme Kulthum from the womb of Fatimah Zahra (AS)
3- Ramalah Kobra
4- Umm ul-Hasan
6- Roghayah al-Soqra
7- Zainab al-Soqra
8- Umme Hani
10- Fatimah Soqra
12- Khadijah Soqra
13- Roqayah Kobra
15- Umme Karam
16- Ramlah Soqra
17- Umme Salamah
18- Umme Kulthum Soqra, from different mothers.
Outstanding personalities and noble companions of His Holiness:
Some of the outstanding companions of His Holiness Amir who were from "the companions of the secrets" of His Holiness are:
1- Mohammad Abi Bakr
2- Owais Qarani
3- Malik bin al-Harith
4- Zaid ibn Sohan
5- Saasaat ibn Sohan
6- Muhammad bin Abi Hadhifah
7- Saeed Ibn Qais Hamdani
8- Rabi bin Kheytham Thouri
9- Aayon bin Saasaat
10- Tarmah bin Oday
11- Saeed bin Jubayr
12- Asbaq ibn Nabatah
13- Muslim al-Mashajei
14- Maysam Tammar
15- Habib bin Mazahir
16- Harith bin Abdullah Hamdani
17- Rashid Hijri
18- Abdullah bin Abi Rafi
20- Komail bin Ziad
 Surah Shuara, verse 214. وَأَنْذِرْ عَشِيرَتَكَ الْأَقْرَبِينَ
 The Muhajirun were the first who converted to Islam and migrated from Mecca to Medina.
 The Ansar were the local inhabitants of Medina who took Muhammad (SAW) and his followers (the Muhajirun) into their homes when they migrated from Mecca to Medina.
 Surah Maedah, verse 67. يَا أَيُّهَا الرَّسُولُ بَلِّغْ مَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِنْ رَبِّكَ
 اُقتلوا نَعثَلاً
 In the Islamic religion, the inviolable months are four months of the Islamic calendar (Dhu al-Qadah, Dhu'l-Hijjah, Muharram and Rajab). Fighting is forbidden during these months except defence and in response to aggression.
 لا رأي لمن لايطاع اعوانه كان
 Surah: Baqarah, Verse: 207. وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَنْ يَشْرِي نَفْسَهُ ابْتِغَاءَ مَرْضَاتِ اللَّهِ وَاللَّهُ رَءُوفٌ بِالْعِبَادِ
 Surah: Maidah, Verse: 55. إِنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَهُمْ رَاكِعُونَ
 Surah: Insan, Verse: 8. وَيُطْعِمُونَ الطَّعَامَ عَلَى حُبِّهِ مِسْكِينًا وَيَتِيمًا وَأَسِيرًا
 Surah: Ahzab, Verse: 33. يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنْكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيرًا