The 5th Imam
His Holiness Mohammad Baqir (AS)
The Preserver of the Ascents of Certainty and the Inheritor of the Knowledge of the Prophets and the Revealer of the Truth of the Esoteric and Exoteric and the Acquisitor of the Sciences of the First and the Last, His Holiness Imam Mohammad Baqir. His distinguished name was Mohammad and patronym of His Holiness was Abu Jafar, his auspicious titles were Baqir and Hadi and Shahid-ul-Olum but on account of his mastery in science his most famous title Baqir is used more than the others. His Holiness has this privilege that he was born in the family of Imams Hassan (AS) and Hossein (AS), and from two sides he was born as Alawi and from two sides was descendant of Bani Hashem and from two directions he was the brightness of the eye of Fatimah Zahra, because his honorable father His Holiness Ali bin Al-Hossein and his paragon exalted mother Fatimah known as Umme Abdullah was the kind hearted benevolent daughter of His Holiness Hassan bin Ali (AS). His blessed birth date was on the 3rd Safar in the year 57 Hijri (677 AD) and in the event of Karbala, he was three years old and was present, and witness to the tragic event of Taff (territory of Karbala) and with the rest of the family was captivated, then after, at the time of caliphate of his father went to Medina and for thirty-four years witnessed the blessings of companionship of his honorable father. According to most narrations the title of Baqir was specified and bestowed by His Holiness the Prophet (PBUH) through Jabir bin Abdullah Ansari to him, because narrations have reached that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said to Jabir: O' Jabir, it will be soon that you will see my grandson from my descendants whose name will be like mine, he will be a splitter of knowledge, just like a cow who splits the earth, when you see him convey my greetings to him.
His Holiness is famed in magnanimity and generosity and is renowned for knowledge and wisdom. Traditions and sayings which have been mentioned from His Holiness on any subject and in any topic cannot be enumerated, and the narration books are full of his wise statements and speeches that citation of the tithe of the tithe of them is out of the capacity of this document. Generosities and miracles emanated from His Holiness are too many that to mention them, it needs many books and publications.
His Holiness as noted before was at the services of his gracious father for thirty-four years till on the 12th Muharram in the year 94 Hijri (713 AD) when his honorable father His Holiness Sajjad (AS) passed away, according to the will of His Holiness was appointed to be the vicegerent and was promoted to the Imam of the people and the proof of God over everything other than God. At this time His Holiness was thirty-seven years old, and Walid bin Abd-ul-Malik Marwan had sat on the throne of Islamic sultanate. And His Holiness Baqir (AS) used to spend his leisure time attending and supervising his farms and properties which he had, till Walid left the sultanate after nine years and some, and in the year 96 Hijri (715 AD) hastened towards his final abode and Suleiman bin Abdul Malik sat on the throne of sultanate and ordered that all government correspondence and documents in all Islamic regions to be written in the Arabic language and characters and in the year 98 Hijri (717 AD), Abu Hashem bin Abdullah bin Mohammad Al Hanafiya who the Shiite of the Kisaniya had devotion towards him and secretly had inviters around to invite people to Bayat (swear allegiance) to him, was returning from Damascus from Suleiman bin Abdul Malik, on the way, on the orders of Suleiman he was poisoned and when he entered the Hamimiya farm of Mohammad bin Ali Abdullah bin Abbas the leader of the Bani Abbas, which was his resident and headquarters of invitation and saw his death as direct vision and moreover he did not have any children, handed execution of his Will to Mohammad bin Ali and assigned the affairs of invitation to him and introduced and recommended his supporters and the inviters to him and the invitation of Kisaniya and Abbasiya actually became one, and Mohammad ibn Ali was engaged in work without a rival, till the year 99 Hijri (718 AD) approached, and Suleiman bin Abdul Malik became ill and from his bed wrote his decree based on his vicegerency and sultanate to Amr bin Abdul Aziz and after him to Yazid bin Abdul Malik. After his death his commander in chief gathered the people in a masjid according to his orders and in the name of someone whose name was in the sealed will and testament of Suleiman was specified, took Bayat (allegiance) from them, then the letter was opened and was read to the people and revealed the list of those assigned were Amr bin Abdullah and Yazid bin Abdullah.
Because Amr bin Abdul Aziz was a pious and religious man accepted the sultanate reluctantly and went to the palace without greed and craving, even did not use the king's cavalcade and royal coach which was made ready for him while going to the palace and rode on his own horse and set out to the palace without formalities. And in his first sermon which he made said: Swear to God I never was desirous of this position nor actually neither intentionally and at present if there are a group who are averse from my caliphate I am ready to put down this burden from my shoulder. In one voice the crowd said: if you do want to cause sedition and corruption and dissension among the people, stay faithful in the affairs of the caliphate and consider all submissive and followers to yourself. Anyway, Amr bin Abdul Aziz was a just man and abstemious and as far as he could he tried to spread social justice and preservation of the Islamic precepts and customs and he would work in the execution of brotherhood and equality among Muslims. The very first good act he did was that he prohibited repulsive behavior and wicked acts of his predecessors, meaning he forbade and abolished cursing and bad saying about His Holiness Commander of the Faithful (AS) in tribunes and wrote letters to all cities and towns prohibiting this wicked act and ordered if anyone endeavors in such affairs, he would severely punish him. Next, in the first year of his caliphate, he sent yields of Fadak which his predecessors used to seize and in that year amounted to six thousand Dinars to his governor in Medina so that he can distribute it to the Bani Fatima’s children. During the time he went to Medina, commanded that Fadak, to be given back to His Holiness Baqir.
In brief Amr bin Abdul Aziz left his caliphate and passed away in the month of Rajab in the year 101 Hijri (720 AD) after two years and some months. It is said his tribe and relatives who were discontent with his justice-seeking and administration of justice, poisoned him. After him according to the will, Suleiman Yazid bin Abdul Malik sat on the throne of sultanate and emirate in his place. He was the grandson of Yazid bin Muawiyah from his mother’s side and grandson of Marwan bin Al-Hakam from his father’s side. The essence of his heredity was kneaded with tyranny and hardheartedness, and his nature was conjoined with impiety and wickedness, in the short duration of his sultanate, he did such injustice and impieties that disclosure of them is shameful. After one year of his sultanate he compelled the people to swear allegiance to his brother Hisham bin Abdul Malik and after him to his son Valid and for four years and some he ruled accompanied with oppression and tyranny. Finally in the month of Shaaban in the year 105 Hijri (724 AD) he died and went to the other world. After him Hisham bin Abdul Malik sat on the throne of sultanate and in the year 106 Hijri (725 AD) went to the house of God for pilgrimage and in the Masjid-al-Haram saw His Holiness Imam Mohammad Baqir who was sitting in a corner, to examine his knowledge through Salem his servant, asked questions to His Holiness and heard adequate and sufficient answers. After returning back to Damascus demanded to see His Holiness. His Holiness with his honourable son Sadiq went to Damascus. That apostate after three days time gave His Holiness permission to meet him when he was engaged in archery with a group and with insistence compelled His Holiness to participate in arrow shooting. His Holiness shot at the target and successively aimed nine arrows to the target wooden post in the same place of the first arrow. The fire of jealousy and hatred blazed in the chest of Hisham and he was decisive to kill His Holiness, but he pretended not to become exasperated and treated his Holiness with respect and honour and that time when His Holiness expressed an inclination to return to Medina, he agreed to the request. According to the narrations, His Holiness Baqir (AS) made a journey to Damascus during the time of Abdul Malik Marwan that the matter about instructions to mint Islamic coins was rendered on the same voyage. The event of occurring such a journey would have been done during the lifetime of his honourable father His Holiness Sayed Sajjad; and according to the indication of that noble Hazrat when Abdul Malik summoned His Holiness Sajjad, His Holiness due to old age must have sent his exuberant son His Excellency Baqir instead of himself. This case was recorded as such, that one day a sum of money and goods were brought to Abdul Malik from Egypt, he became aware of the symbols and design on the products and garments which were printed in Roman characters and commanded to translate them into the Arabic language. It became known that their symbols were (Father, Son and the Holy Ghost). Abdul Malik considered the circulation of this slogan which was against the monotheism of Islam among the Muslims as impermissible and ordered where ever they observed this symbol in the Islamic cities to eradicate it and engrave and stamp the slogan “Allah bears witness that there is no God but He” and he would imprison and torment anyone thereafter if the goods with the former symbol was seen with anyone, when this news reached the country of Rome, the emperor of Rome sent a letter to Abdul Malik along with presents and gifts and wrote in that letter, this Roman symbol is always ornament of goods from the countries of Rome for any borders and region. Now I request that the caliph commands cancellation of the decree to change the symbol. Abdul Malik returned the gifts and did not answer his letter. The emperor of Rome again wrote a threatening letter to Abdul Malik that if he does not order the aforesaid decree to be cancelled, he will order to engrave insults and curse the Prophet of Islam on the Dirham and Dinar which is a medium of trade in every bazaar and are circulated in every city and country, Abdul Malik merged in thought in his own work because during that time Roman Dirham and Dinars were circulating everywhere. He gathered the wise and grandees of the people and consulted with them; no one could suggest reconciliation for the case and for no one’s solution was sufficient. Finally one of the consultants said it would be better if we ask the solution of the problem from the family of prophecy and household of the prophetic messenger who is more learned in the affairs of religion. Abdul Malik was delighted from this suggestion and requested either from His Holiness Baqir to come to Damascus or asked His Holiness Sajjad to go to Damascus. His Holiness due to old age and weak physical health sent His Holiness Baqir to Damascus instead of himself.
Anyway, according to the narrations, the governor of Medina sent His Holiness Baqir (AS) to Damascus in a dignified and respectable condition. His Holiness arrived at Abdul Malik's palace, and Abdul Malik explained the situation and requested for a solution. His Holiness said: rectifying this situation is not so complicated as you think, the solution for this is that you immediately order to gather a group of coin minters, and make them available the tools for minting coins so that they can be engaged in minting Islamic Dinar and Dirham and each Dirham with 50 grams and each Dinar with weight of 35 grams and on one side of the coin to engrave Surah of Toheed (Unity) and on the other side engrave testimony of the prophetic mission of the Prophet of Islam and also engrave the date and place of minting on each coin, then in each Islamic city as required to establish a mint and to engage in minting coins and distribute the Islamic coins among the people and to make a ruling to do business with Islamic coins and forbid transactions with foreign coins and order that anyone who has foreign coins must exchange with Islamic coins. After this, whoever has foreign coins with goods engraved with the nullified symbol to be imprisoned and persecuted. Abdul Malik was delighted and enforced the instructions of His Holiness and dismissed the messenger of the emperor of Rome with a few Islamic coins and wrote to the emperor of Rome: We do not have any need for your Dirham and Dinar after this time, and the Almighty God will not give you victory for the heinous act you had in mind. Then he returned His Holiness Baqir (AS) to Medina respectfully. This event was recorded in history in the year 76 Hijri (696 AD), and at this time the age of His Holiness Baqir was about twenty years old. Anyway His Holiness Baqir reclined on the throne of Divine Imamate and caliphate and was engaged in publication of sciences and broadcasting the narrations and traditions of his great ancestors and high exalted fathers and traditions of His Holiness the best of the people (PBUH) (namely the Holy Prophet) till the year 114 Hijri (733 AD). The narrations and traditions from His Holiness in every subject are so numerous and abundant, and his generosity is so extensive and so much distinguished that recording them is not possible except in many volumes and the author is excused from mentioning them in this document.
His Holiness was poisoned by Hisham bin Abdul Malik on the influence of backbiting by Zaid bin Al-Hassan by means of applying poison on His Holiness’s horse’s saddle, or it is said by putting poison in His Holiness’s food, that on the 7th Dulhajjah 114 Hijri (733 AD) in a place called Hammima or in Medina he was martyred and was united with his respected fathers. His sacred body was buried in Al Baqi. His Holiness’s age during the time of his martyrdom was a little less than fifty-seven years, and his Imamate was for a period of twenty years and some. His Holiness on his deathbed said to his worthy son His Holiness Sadiq (AS) to bring in his presence a group of the Quraysh and in their presence expressed his precepts to His Holiness (Sadiq) and appointed him as guardian and his successor and Imam of the people and introduced him.
Marriage and children of His Holiness:
His Holiness had two formal (non–bondswoman) wives: First Umme Farwah bint Qasim bin Mohammad bin Abi Bakr who was the exalted mother of His Holiness Sadiq and His Excellency Abdullah. Second, Umme Hakim bint Asad bin Muqaira al-Thagafahi who was the mother of His Excellency Ibrahim and Abdullah Akbar and the rest of His Holiness’s children were from (Umme–Walad) bondswomen.
The children of His Holiness were five boys and two girls:
1 .His Holiness Jaffer Sadiq
4. Abdullah Asghar
Some notable disciples of His Holiness
1. Jaber bin Yazid Al-Jo’fi that according to the narration in Bihar, he was the outstanding companion of His Holiness.
2. Mohammad bin Muslim bin Riyah Al-Kufi
3. Aban bin Taghlab
4. Zarareh bin A’ayon
5. Abul Qasim Yazid bin Muawiyah Ijli
6. Abu Nasir Laith bin Al-Bakhtari Al-Moradi
7. Abu Obaid Ziyad bin Isa
8. Ibn Abi Ya’fur
9. Abu Hamzeh Somali
10. Abdullah bin Shareek Al-Ameri
11. Saa’d bin Zarif Al-Hanzali
12. Salem bin Abi Hafasah Al-Ijli
13. Ibn Abi Maymon Ismail bin Abdul Khaliq
14. Hamran bin A’yon Al-Sheybani
15. Mohammad bin Qaith Abu Nasr Al-Asadi
16. Ismael Abul Fazl bin Yaqoob
17. Abu Harun
18. Rafeh bin Ziad Ashja Al-Kufi
19. Ismael bin Ammar bin Abi Hayyan
Contemporary Caliphs and Rulers of His Holiness:
1. Walid bin Abdul Malik
2. Suleiman bin Abdul Malik
3. Amr bin Abdul Aziz
4. Yazid bin Abdul Malik
5. Hisham bin Abdul Malik.