The 10th Imam
His Holiness Imam Hadi (AS)
The Key of Treasury of Incumbency and the Preserver of Unseen Places, the Pure Advisor and Pious Guide Imam Ali Naqi (AS). His glorified name Ali, His famous titles Naqi and Hadi and His Holiness' patronym was Abol Hassan the Third. His honorable father was His Holiness Imam Mohammad Taqi and his paragon exalted mother was a bondwoman called Samana Al Maghribiyya and was well known as Seyedah. His auspicious attributes of the essence of his birth was in the mid of Dhul-Hijjah 212 Hijri (828 AD) according to well known narrations. His honorable birthplace was in a place called Sarya which was three halting places of caravanserai to Medina. His Holiness till the year 218 Hijri (833 AD) when his honorable father was in Medina was brought up and grew under the auspices shelter of his father. In that year when His Holiness Imam Taqi (AS) according to the orders of Mutasim Abbasi left Baghdad and gathered a group of Shiites and introduced his tall stature son to them as caliphate and his vicegerent and leader of the people.
His Holiness after the martyrdom of his gracious father thus resided in Medina till Mutasim killed Babak Khoramdin by Afshin, in the year 223 Hijri (838 AD) and with the intention of war with Rome galloped toward Amuriyeh and was on the verge of progressing further ahead in the territory of Rome when on hearing news of the opposition from Abbas bin Mamun had to cancel and returned and seized Abbas and his friends and killed them and in Samarra also accused his commander in chief Afshin of violation and killed him. That time he himself left this world in the year 227 Hijri (842 AD) and his son Abu Jaffer Harun bin Al Mutasim by the name of Al Vasighbillah sat on the throne of caliphate. Al Vasigh liked the descendants of Ali (AS) and used to respect them and in the freedom of belief and religion was in agreement with the people. He after five years and nine months of caliphate in the year 232 Hijri (847 AD) left this world. After his death, the Arab emirs and Mohammad bin Abdulmalek Ziate the minister wanted to make his son Mohammad bin Vasiq to sit in place of caliphate of his father. The Turkish emirs disagreed that Mohammad was young. After discussions the ballot of authority fell in the name of Jaffer bin Mutasim and he was endowed with the title Al Motawakkil Ala Allah and made to sit on the throne of caliphate. In the year 232 Hijri (847 AD), he after stability of work removed Mohammad bin Abdulmalek Ziate and decreed that people make allegiance to his three sons, Montasar, Motazz and Moa'ed in sequence as his heirs and decreed to demolish the sacred grave of the Master of Martyrs Imam Hussein (AS) and houses around it and prohibited the visit of the sacred graves of the Commander of the Faithful Ali Ibn Abi Talib (AS) and the grave of the Master of Martyrs Imam Hussein (AS) and levied heavy taxes from the foreign pilgrims. And in the year 243 Hijri (857 AD) sent Yahya bin Harsameh to Medina and invited His Holiness Imam Ali Al Naqi (AS) to Samarra and Harsameh took His Holiness to Samara with comfort and ease. However, Motawakkil gave residence to His Holiness in a low and unsuitable place and in the year 244 Hijri (859 AD) went to Damascus to make there the capital, but because of incompatibility of water there, he returned to Samarra after two months.
This accursed with his associates and companions even with his relatives behaved maliciously and harshly; that all people around him were disgusted and loathed him. He always spoke with aggravation with his son Montasar who was his crown prince, that you are waiting for my death and sometimes would slap him one after the other and persecute him till finally the hatred of his surroundings and abhorrence of his son Montasar reached such a limit that all united with each other and one night rushed to his assembly and sent him and his minister Fat’h bin Khaghan to another world. This matter occurred in the year 247 Hijri (862 AD) after fourteen years and nine months after the caliphate of Motawakkil. It is said that Motawakkil was killed in a place called Marjuneh, and Shiruyeh Sasani killed his father Khosro Parviz there; and Motawakkil had built a palace by the name of Jaffarieh there and was resident in there.
Anyway, Montasar after killing his father sat on the throne of caliphate. He allowed the sacred graves of His Holiness Amir and His Holiness Master of Martyrs (AS) to be visited and annulled his father's orders regarding forbidding visits to the holy graves and returned Fadak to the sons of Hassan and sons of Hussain, but his caliphate did not last long and after six months of caliphate he died in Rabi-ul-aval 248 Hijri (863 AD). After his death since the Turkish commanders were concerned about Mutazz the second son of Motawakkil swore allegiance with Ahmad bin Motasam and he sat on the throne of caliphate and chose the tittle of Al Mostainbillah for himself. And during his time Yahya bin amr bin Hussain Alavi revolted in Kufeh and was martyred and since three years and nine months had passed his caliphate, some Turkish commanders because of disagreement among themselves brought Al-Motazzbillah son of Motawakkil out of jail who was in Mostain's custody and swore allegiance with him, and another group from the Turks went towards Baghdad with Mostain for fighting against Mutazz and after fighting for some time Mostain and his companions were defeated and surrounded and compelled Mostain to abdicate. After the abdication, he was imprisoned in Baghdad and in the year 251 Hijri (865 AD) Mutazz sat on the seat of caliphate and after sometime Mostain was called from Baghdad, and in the road, he decreed to kill him. In the year 253 Hijri (867 AD) Sari Saghati, the guardian of Sufis died. And in the year 254 Hijri (868 AD) according to the most famous sayings Al-Motamedbillah poisoned His Holiness Ali Al Naqi (AS) on the orders of his brother Mutazz who was the caliph and His Holiness was martyred in the third month of Rajab of the year 254 Hijri (868 AD). His Holiness's age during martyrdom was over some forty one years and the duration of his spiritual guidance was thirty three years and some months. His Holiness during the period of his lifetime was in dissimulation and used to accept less Shiites in his presence save a few special believers who used to attain to meet him. His Holiness according to numerous narrations introduced his honorable son His Holiness Hassan Askari as the Imam after him before death to his special companions and special Shiites and stipulated guardianship and vicegerent and leadership of that Imam. His Holiness's grave is in Samarra which is circumambulated by pilgrims and Shiites.
His Holiness did not have a non-bondswoman wife and his honorable sons were from a slave woman. His Holiness had four sons:
1) His Holiness Imam Hassan Askari
3) Abu Syed Mohammad
4) Abu Abdullah well known as "Jaffer the Liar" and after His Holiness' death, he deceitfully claimed spiritual guardianship. His Holiness had one daughter by the name of Allayya.
1. Ebrahim bin Is’haq
2. Ali bin Mehryar Ahwazi
3. Ayub bin Noah
4. Is’haq bin Ismael bin Noubakht
5. Bashshar bin Yasar
6. Riyan Assollat
7. Masaleh bin Salama Al Razi
8. Ali bin Ebrahim
9. Abu Talib al Barghi
10. Abu Tahir bin Hamzeh bin Alyasaa Al Ashari
11. Hussain bin Hamad bin Saeed bin Hamad
12. Khayran al Khadim.
2. Al Motasem
3. Al Vasiq
4. Al Motawakkil
5. Al Montasir
6. Al Mostain
7. Al Mutazzbillah Abbasi, that His Holiness was martyred on his order.
 As it was cited earlier in terminology of historians and narrators the Commander of the Faithful Ali bin Abu Talib is called as Abol Hassan with no suffix and His Holiness Musa Kazim (AS) as Abol Hassan the First and His Holiness Reza (AS) as Abol Hassan the Second and His Holiness Imam Hadi (AS) as Abol Hassan the Third.